Conversion Substitute List

All of my recipes suggested on this blog are Gluten Free/Dairy Free.

Old Me                            New GF/CF Me

All Purpose Flour            GF All Purpose Flour Blend (see recipe below)
Krustez Pancake Mix      GF Pancake Mix (see recipe below)
2 % Milk                          Rice Milk, Almond Milk or Soy Milk
Vegetable Shortening      Earths Balance Vegan Butter sticks
Vegetable oil                   Earths Balance melted butter or Olive oil
Pasta                                Rice pasta, corn pasta
Dried Bread crumbs        Glutino dried bread crumbs
Cottage cheese                 GF/CF Cottage Cheese (see recipe below)

Milk Substitute Recipes

Rice Milk 1

1 cup of cooked rice – warm out of the pot
4 cups warm water
put in blender and puree
add vanilla (1 tsp) or to taste – or almond flavor
add honey to taste
strain it
throw out the rice crumbs
drink the milk
Put the cooked rice and warm water in the blender and puree. Add vanilla (about 1 tsp or to taste) – or almond flavor or honey.  Strain the mixture and throw out any rice crumbs. Now, drink the milk!
It’s a lot cheaper to make your own rice milk. If you don’t like this recipe, change it to suit your needs. The rice milk will keep for one week if kept properly refrigerated. Discard after one week.

Almond Milk

3/4 cup almonds, blanched
1 tsp. honey OR 1 dried pineapple ring, chopped
1/4 cup sesame seeds
5 cups water
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. gluten-free vanilla, or vanilla beans
It is best to first grind the almonds in a coffee grinder. Place all the ingredients in a blender with only a small amount of the water. Blend well and then, add any remaining water. Line sieve with a cheesecloth and pour the almond milk through the cheesecloth. Chill before serving.

GFCF Egg Substitutes

Two commercially available egg substitutes are NoEgg by Orgran and Egg Replacer by Ener-G Foods.
Below are some simple substitutions:
2 tbsp. corn starch = 1 egg
2 tbsp. arrowroot flour = 1 egg
2 tbsp. potato starch = 1 egg
1 banana = 1 egg in cake recipes
1 tbsp. ground flax seeds plus 3 tbsp. water = one egg
Also, keep in mind that some children who are sensitive or allergic to chicken eggs may not have the same reaction (check with your child’s physician) to other poultry eggs, such as turkey, goose, quail, etc. These eggs can be found at farmer’s markets, Asian markets, or online. One mother said she put an ad in the paper to which a local farmer responded and supplied her child with turkey eggs.

Egg Replacers

Below are ideas I have found for egg white substitute although I know many people who have used egg white substitute to replace real egg whites. Egg white substitute is very goopy and so far, I have never tried it for gingerbread house icing glue. I may try it soon though. My 8-year-old son is dying to make a gingerbead house.

Whole Flax SeedsUse 1 part seeds to 4 parts water (the seed sellers say to use 1 part seeds to 3 parts water, but they’re in the business of selling seeds, aren’t they?). Simmer for 5-7 min. Proceed as described under “Straining”.
For 1 egg, use 4 tsp. seeds to 1/3 cup water = 80 ml water (some will boil off).
Efficient Method:
Use 1 part seeds to 12 parts water, e.g. 4 tsp. seeds per cup of water, or 1 tsp. per 60 ml of water. Soak from 1 hour to overnight, whatever is convenient for you. Simmer for 20 min, and be sure to let gloop cool completely before straining.
Allowing the gloop to cool with the seeds in it makes it thicker. When it is thick and cool enough, pour it into a bowl lined with cheesecloth. Gather up the edges of the cloth and gently squeeze out the gloop, until the cloth contains only seeds. (If you’re trying to use a strainer and it works, your gloop is too thin! Simmer it a bit more..) Compost the seeds (or hide them somewhere in tonight’s dinner?), and use the gloop.
To replace 1 egg, use a scant 1/4 cup gloop ( 50 ml gloop)

Egg Recipes that are best used for binding or moisture ONLY

(I have not had any success with any of these recipes for chewy brownie mixes although one customer swears the flaxseed powder recipe works great for it):
  • 3 tbsp. any pureed fruit or vegetable (baby foods work great)
  • 1 tsp. pulverized flaxseed (grind in coffee grinder) placed in 1/3 cup water and brought to boiling. Let cool before using. Or the posted flaxseed recipe.
  • 1 tbsp. of any of the following PLUS 2 tbsp. warm water: unflavored, unsweetened gelatin OR pectin OR agar OR ground Flaxseed powder or carrageenan (or I have also seen where this amount is dissolved in 1 cup boiling water and then use 3 tbsp. of this mixture)

Egg Recipes that can be used for leavening (rising) (and also can be used for binding):

  • 1 1/2 tbsp. soy lecithin granules or oil, 1 1/2 tbsp. water, and 1 tsp. baking powder.
  • 1 heaping tbsp. Egg-Replacer® plus 2 tbsp. warm water.
  • 1 heaping tbsp. baking powder*, 1 1/2 tbsp. water, plus 1 1/2 tbsp. oil.
  • 1 heaping tbsp. baking powder*, 1 tbsp. warm water, and 1 tbsp. cider or rice vinegar.
*Note: If a corn-free or low-sodium baking powder is needed, use Featherweight Baking Powder. If you need it also to be potato-free or want to make your own use 1 heaping tbsp. of the following mixture:
  • 1/3 cup baking soda
  • 2/3 cup cream of tartar
  • 2/3 cup arrowroot starch
Blend flours well and store in airtight container. The mix is not very stable since it starts reacting as soon as it is mixed so a scaled down version is below: 1 1/2 tsp. baking soda, 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar, and 3/4 tsp. arrowroot or potato starch flour.
When using gluten-free products one might want to boost the leavening power or the egg recipe so I made the adjustments to the above egg recipes for leavening by boosting the leavening agents. Acidic agents such as lemon juice, buttermilk, vinegar, molasses, and other dough enhancers like ascorbic acid all help boost the leavening process too. It also helps greatly to use a high end electric mixer to beat extra air into the dough and create air pockets to trap these leavening gases.


Real Food Living has a great site for information about sugar alternatives and substitution help.

Converting a recipe from sugar to honey:

Honey is three times as sweet as sugar, so the conversion factor is 3:1. Reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup for each cup of honey used in baked goods. Add about 1/2 tsp. baking soda for each cup of honey used in baked goods. Reduce oven temperature by 25 degrees to prevent burning.

Converting a recipe to Agave Nectar:

White Sugar - For each cup of white sugar replaced, use 2/3 of a cup of agave and reduce other liquids by 1/4 to 1/3 cup. This substitution will also work for Demerara Sugar, Turbinado Sugar, Evaporated Cane Juice, or Sucanat.
Brown Sugar – For each cup of brown sugar replaced, use 2/3 of a cup of agave and reduce other liquids by 1/4 cup. Because the moisture content of Brown Sugar is higher than that of white sugar, liquids may not have to be reduced as much when substituting agave nectar.
Honey or maple syrup – Replace each cup of honey with one cup of agave syrup.
Brown Rice Syrup – When replacing a cup of brown rice syrup, use 1/2 to 1/3 as much agave, and increase other liquids in the recipe by up to 1/2 a cup.
Corn Syrup- When replacing a cup of light corn syrup, use 1/2 as much agave, and increase other liquids in the recipe by up to 1/3 of a cup. Like corn syrup, agave nectar will not crystallize.
Agave syrup may cause baked items to brown more quickly, so reduce oven temperatures by 25°F is and increase baking time slightly.

Stevia Conversion Chart (White Powder Extract Only)

1/4 tsp. Stevia white powder extract = 1 cup sugar in sweetness. To make a liquid solution, dissolve 1 tsp. Stevia white powder extract into 3 tbsp. distilled water. Refrigerate in a dropper bottle.
Granulated SugarStevia Powder Extract
1/2 cup1/8 tsp.
3/4 cup1/5 tsp.
1 cup1/4 tsp.
3.75 lbs.0.3 ounces
10 lbs.0.8 ounces
200 lbs.1 pound
Adapting favorite family recipes and baked goods to stevia may take several trials. Baked goods made without sugar don’t brown well and need to be checked with a toothpick for doneness. Sugar adds volume to a recipe as well, so the liquid and dry ingredients will need to be drastically adjusted when just a dash of stevia is used.

Yeast and Stevia

When substituting sugar, you need to keep the following issues in mind:
  1. How much sugar are you substituting? If substituting only a small amount, say less than 1/4 cup, you can use Stevia (just add enough as needed based on taste preference-actually taste the batter). In small amounts, you can just delete the sugar since it is non-essential many times when used in small amounts. If substituting larger amounts, you need to recognize that the sugar is now serving the purpose of bulk in the recipe and that added amounts may affect texture and taste. Here is where you may need a bulking agent to increase the volume since Stevia is a very concentrated sweetness (30-40x sweeter than sugar in bulk), and add this in addition to the Stevia to your recipe.
  2. Which sugar substitute are you using? If it’s a liquid substitute and more than a few teaspoons, you may need to adjust the total amount of liquid in the recipe to accommodate for this added liquid. Often, you need to cut back about 1/3. The recipe may not actually tolerate the sugar change. Honey & other “substitutes” caramelize at lower heats and may burn. You need to check the package.
I like the Ultimate Sweetener (from birch bark) as a sugar substitute because you can use it in equal substitution for any amount sugar (its the same sweetness, moisture content, & granulation) without altering the recipe. And you can even add one tablespoon of molasses to each cup of Ultimate Sweetener to make mock brown sugar.
Other substitution choices:
  • Rice Syrup
  • Wax Orchards’ Fruit Sweet and Pear Sweet (also corn-free)
  • Ultimate Life’s Ultimate Sweetener
  • Honey
  • Xylitol
  • Agave nectar (low glycemic index)


Powdered Sugar without Corn

It is important to know that practically all commonly, commercially available powdered sugar contains cornstarch, which means if your child is allergic to corn, you must find a corn-free alternative to regular powdered sugar.
My family also does not use cornstarch, because corn is now genetically modified in the U.S. But I discovered that it is very easy to make your own powdered sugar. Take a spice grinder and put in any kind of granulated sugar. Turn it on. Voila, instant powdered sugar!
Non-corn syrup candy: Try a health food store. These specialty stores have all kinds of organic candies that do not use corn syrup. There are also a lot of non-organic ones there that do not use corn syrup.
If you ever need to replace cornstarch, arrowroot powder (available in health food stores) can be used exactly as cornstarch. We make puddings and use it as an egg replacer also. It works great.

Corn-free subsitutions:

  • corn flour = potato flour
  • cornstarch = arrowroot or tapioca flour, garfava (bean) flour for baking and coating
  • baking powder = Featherweight brand or 1/4 cup baking soda + 1/2 cup cream of tartar + 1/4 cup potato starch
  • xanthan gum (from corn) = guar gum powdered sugar (has cornstarch) : grind from regular sugar

GFCFSF Margarines, Butters and Oils

Not all substitutes are created equal and cannot merely be substituted 1:1. Information on oil/water content of available products.
There is only one GFCFSF margarine substitute currently is Earth Balance Natural Buttery Spread Soy-Free.

Oils for Baking

  • Canola oil **
  • Coconut oil/butter *
  • Flax seed oil
  • Macadamia nut oil
  • Organic lard *
  • Palm oil/palm kernel oil shortenening *,**
  • Safflower oil
  • Sunflower oil
  • Walnut oil

Oils for sautéing

  • Olive oil
  • Rice bran oil
  • Sesame oil

Oils for frying

  • Corn oil **
  • Peanut oil
  • Safflower oil
  • Sunflower oil

Oils for Salad Dressing

* The hydrogenated forms of these oils are very high in saturated and/or trans fats (the bad kind) and should be used judiciously.
** These oils are also used in biofuel products and may not be digested as well by people with ASD.

Cottage Cheese (GF/CF)
7 ounces silken tofu or medium tofu or coconut yogurt
½ teaspoon garlic powder
1½ tablespoons olive oil
¼ teaspoon salt

1. Place tofu or yogurt into a medium bowl. If using tofu, mash it with the back of a fork.

2. Add remaining ingredients and continue mashing until mixture has a cottage cheese texture. Chill in refrigerator until used

*All-Purpose Flour blend 

6 cups of white flour (Bob Red Mills)
3 cups of Tapioca flour (Shiloh farms)
1 1/2 Potato Starch (Bob Red Mills)
1 Tbs salt
2 Tbs Xanthum Gum (Bob Red Mills)

In a large bowl, whisk together the rice flour, tapioca flour, potato starch, salt and xanthum gum. Transfer to the airtight container and store in a cool, dry place or in the refrigerator.

*All Purpose Pancake Mix

9 cups All purpose flour blend (see above)
1 cup plus 2 tbs of Organic Sugar
3 tbs baking powder
2 1/2 salt
In a large bowl, whisk together the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt. Transfer to an airtight storage container and store in cool dry place.

*by Silvana Nardone, the author of "Cooking for Isaiah"

Homemade Mayonnaise (GFCFSF)

2 egg yolks
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon powdered mustard
Pinch of sugar
Pinch cayenne pepper
3 teaspoons lemon juice or rice wine vinegar
1-1/2 cups olive oil
4 teaspoons hot water

Beat yolks, salt, mustard, sugar, pepper in a small bowl with a whisk until very thick and pale yellow. (You can use a blender, but I had better luck doing it by hand!) Add about 1/4 cup oil, drop by drop, beating vigorously all the while. Beat in 1 teaspoon each lemon juice and hot water. Add another 1/4 cup oil, a few drops at a time, beating vigorously all the while. Beat in another teaspoon each lemon juice and water. Add 1/2 cup oil in a very fine steady stream, beating constantly, then mix in remaining lemon juice and water; slowly beat in remaining oil. Cover and refrigerate until needed. Do not keep longer than 1 week.

Flours to AVOID:
Bulgar flour-This is made from wheat and should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Brown flour-This flour contains the wheat germ and a small amount of bran and should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Cake flour-Soft flour made from grinding soft wheat. Should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Durum flour-This is made from wheat and should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Granary flour-A mixture of whole meal, white and rye flours with malted grains. Should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Graham flour-This flour is like whole meal flour but has had the wheat germ removed and flakes of bran added. Should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Kamut flour-This is made from wheat and should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Plain flour- Multi-purpose wheat flour. Should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Sauce flour-Special flour used for making sauces, common to restaurants using flour based sauces and should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Self-raising flour-Made from wheat and should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Semolina flour-This is ground from durum wheat and should be avoided for wheat free cooking. The very fine version is known as semola di grano, and will be found in pastas and breads.
Spelt flour-Despite what many flour and product manufacturers will tell you, spelt is an ancient form of wheat and should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Strong flour-This flour is made from hard wheat with high gluten content. Should be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Triticale flour-Triticale is another name for wheat. It is an ancient hybrid of rye and wheat and so should be avoided for wheat free cooking. The term triticale is often used in many product ingredient lists, especially beauty products, which can cause confusion and not necessarily be identified as the cause of a bad reaction.
Wheat flour-Produced from grinding wheat which produces different qualities/types of flour. All flours produced from wheat must be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Wheaten corn flour-Ground from wheat and therefore not to be confused with corn flour which is ground from corn. Must be avoided for wheat free cooking.
Whole meal flour-Also known as whole wheat or wheat meal flour and is made from the whole wheat grain. Should be avoided for wheat free cooking.

Gluten Free Flours to Embrace by Gluten Free
Sorghum Flour
Some people describe the taste as nutty, others describe it as bland or tasteless. It adds a great texture to baked goods, along with valuable protein. It is a very popular flour in the gluten free community and one that I use frequently.
White Rice Flour/Brown Rice Flour-
These are interchangeable in recipes. The brown rice flour is whole grain and is therefore better for you. If you are concerned about the food budget, buy white rice flour. It is cheaper to buy white rice flour at ethnic grocery stores than your health food store. Rice Flour is great for making a roux and as part of a gluten-free all-purpose baking mix. In recipes that call for a small amount of flour, I normally just throw in rice flour.
Sweet Rice Flour-
this is my preferred flour for making a roux. It is an excellent addition to any baking mix and wonderful in pizza and breads. I have started using this flour a lot recently. 
Tapioca Starch/Flour-
A great binder in baked goods when used in combination with other flours. It is also a great thickener for sauces. The great thing about tapioca flour is that it will thicken at a low temperature. It will keep in an airtight container in the fridge for two years, but I go through a box in about three weeks!
Potato Starch-
Not to be confused with potato flour, potato starch is a wonderful thickener and can tolerate higher temperatures than cornstarch. It adds moisture to baked goods. A lot of mainstream flourless chocolate cakes recipes contain potato starch.
Arrowroot Starch-
This is generally considered the most neutral tasting thickener, but it is definitely the priciest! Use arrowroot for acidic sauces. I rarely use this one. It can be used to thicken gravy. I know a lot of you use it on an occasional basis, so I thought I would mention it here.
Teff flour-This whole grain flour has a mild, nutty, and almost sweet flavor. It imparts a moistness in gluten-free baking.
Buckwheat Flour -I stock this flour just so that I can make homemade buckwheat pancakes and waffles occasionally. It is also good as part of a flour combination in muffins and quick breads. 
Quinoa flour-I like baking with this flour because it gives baked goods a nuttier taste. Quinoa flour is wonderfully healthy; it contains a complete protein. I think quinoa flour also lends more moisture to gluten-free baked goods.
Certified oat flour-This flour can be used in baked goods. Make sure you buy oat flour that has been certified gluten-free. I rarely buy this flour because I only tolerate oats on an occasional use basis.
Coconut flour-This flour adds moisture to baked goods. It is a great addition to chocolate desserts!
Almond Meal-This meal/flour adds moisture and protein to baked goods. I use it in baked goods all the time. The cake above was made with almond meal, sweet rice flour, and brown rice flour. It is also great for making pie crusts or cheesecake crusts!
Hazelnut Meal-
This meal/flour also adds protein and moisture to baked goods. I make a hazelnut cheesecake and use hazelnut meal for my cookie crust. I buy it for specialty desserts only.

****This is by no means an exhaustive list, but I hope it gets you on your way to your own personal practically perfect gluten free flour blend!****


Xanthan Gum-
This works wonders for gluten-free baked goods. It is expensive, but you only use a little at a time. I only use about a teaspoon for quick bread! It is a great binder. I keep this in a canister. If it spills, do not get it wet because it becomes very sticky and hard to remove. To remove xanthan gum once it has hardened, I use a spatula.
Baking Soda-
I like Bob’s Red Mill Baking Soda.
Baking Powder-
Make sure it is aluminum-free and gluten-free. Featherweight Baking Powder is gluten-free and also corn-free. Make sure your baking powder is less than six months old.


  1. Thanks for sharing. It makes it a little easier when you compare the old things you used and the new stuff you buy. thanks

  2. Did you lable those little bottles? And what is in then? Cute so organize.

  3. I struggled with the conversions for a little bit but it gets easier the more I network with other GFCF people and the longer we are on the diet. Trust me, your kids will tell you when it doesn't taste right and your hubby will tell you when he doesn't want you to repeat a dish. That would be considered a CONVERSION FAIL. :-) In the pic, these are just regular spices that are labeled. Its funny how you really find yourself experimenting with spices on this diet. Did you know that Pure spices are Gluten Free?